Kappa Bioscience

All-trans Means All-bioactive

Cis/Trans: different biological actitvity

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All-trans means all-bioactive - Basic Principals

See what CEO Egil Greve from Kappa Bioscience has to say about K2

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Final products from fermentation production are a mixture of trans and cis isomers

Commercial Scale Fermented Manufacturing Process

A challenge with a fermentation production process is the fact that MK-7 is just one of the components in the process, and it must subsequently be extracted from the suspension and purified. It is very important to perform the purification process so that the final product is all-trans MK-7 and not a mixture of cis/trans compounds (since all-trans remains the bioactive substance) or mixed with other compounds. In some cases, the final products from fermentation production are a mixture of trans and cis isomers together with other compounds. This indicates that the purification process used was not optimal, falling short of achieving all-trans MK-7.

All-trans MK-7

Vitamin K2 is a group of structurally similar fat-soluble vitamins, which differ in their isoprenoid chain lengths. These vitamin K2 homologs are called menaquinones and are characterized by the number of isoprenoid side chain residues. Vitamin K2 MK-7 has seven isoprene residues in its side chain. The menaquinones found in nature exist in an all-trans configuration. Trans is the bioactive form of the molecule.


All menaquinones in the all-trans configuration have an extended system of isoprenoid units and are consequently linear. Because of the number of double bonds, many geometric isomers (cisisomers) are theoretically possible. The cis isomers are not linear, and their shape differs substantially from that of the all-trans form. As a result, their ability to fit into subcellular structures may differ greatly from that of the all-trans form. In other words, because of their differing shapes, cis-isomers may not fit where they are supposed to, leaving K2-dependent enzymes and proteins inactivated. The cis-trans-isomerism of the carbon-carbon double bonds is an important feature of the stereoisomerism of the menaquinones because these geometric isomers may have different biological activity. For experimental work, it must be kept in mind that geometric isomerization may occur when a menaquinone is kept in solution, especially in the presence of light.

Kappa Bioscience’s K2VITAL® Product analyzed by C30 reversed phase column

In sum, the all-trans compound is the bioactive component. Cis compounds may have reduced activity or be biologically inactive, unable to activate K2-dependent enzymes and proteins. Synthesis production creates an all-trans vitamin K2 compared to the mixture of cis and trans forms that is created by some fermentation production processes.

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Scalable capacity for mass-market production demands: Kappa’s current production capacity already exceeds the total projected yearly global vitamin K2 demand through 2020.
Industry-leading pricing: Kappa continuously reinvests in R&D and manufacturing processes to drive ingredient price points to levels that support commercial adoption. In 2017, Kappa led the market with a 45% price reduction – marking a significant step on the path to mass-market commercialization of K2.

Purity: all-trans vitamin K2 MK-7 (USP).
Quality: GMP, HACCP, ISO 22000:2005 manufacturing and distribution standards.
Stability: Patent-pending microencapsulation technology ensures stability in challenging formulations.
Long shelf life in finished products: 36 months shelf life on all ingredients; supported by extensive stability data on ingredients and finished formulations.
Approvals: Novel Food (EU), TGA (AUS), sGRAS (USA), drug registration in India (2017). Application processes are initiated in countries including China, Thailand and others. Kosher and Halal certifications.

Kappa developed the K2 Formulation LookBook, including more than 120 ready-to-use product formulations and dosage forms targeted towards all K2 health applications and a wide range of consumer groups.

Kappa’s on-going ExperienceCard Program develops innovative vitamin K2 formulations in collaboration with industry leaders. Each ExperienceCard concept represents a novel product formulation that is specifically designed to solve an existing market problem or to address a health segment or consumer group in a new way. K2VITAL® vitamin K2 MK-7 provides the central ingredient in each of the products. Partners provided synergistic co-ingredients, innovative dosage or manufacturing technology, or other elements that make these forward-looking products possible.

K2 Introduction

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The History of K2

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The Different Vitamins in the K Family

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All-trans Means All-bioactive

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K2 Deficiency

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