Bone Metabolism – Invest Early, Live Long and Healthy
The skeleton requires specific minerals and nutrients to maintain a healthy, proper form. Bones undergo a natural cycle of disassembly and regeneration. Every seven years, bone remodelling leads to a complete replacement of the skeleton. The bone matrix contains cells that both build-up and remove old and damaged bone tissue. Maintenance of the proper balance between these two functions is vital for good health and must be managed throughout life. The natural and expected age-related loss of bone mineral density over time increases the risk for fragile bones that can lead to fractures. When we are younger, new bone is created faster than old bone is broken down. Peak bone mass is reached sometime after the age of 20 where it levels off until it begins a natural decline.
With age, bones become more porous, and therefore lighter and less dense. Weak bones show a loss of calcium in the bone mineral matrix. The highest risk for fractures comes from bone-weakening conditions such as osteopenia and osteoporosis, most commonly associated with women or certain medical conditions. In post-menopausal years even healthy women are at increased fracture risk compared to men. The good news is that studies show that even a 10% increase in peak bone mass at the exit of adolescence can lead to a 50% decrease in the risk of osteoporotic fracture in later years. Strong, healthy bones formed in early life set a higher baseline for when the natural decline of bone mass begins – highlighting the importance of sufficient dietary intake of calcium, vitamin D3 and K2VITAL® vitamin K2 MK-7 throughout all stages of life.
Bone mechanics – osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and osteocalcin
Osteoblasts and osteoclasts are the two types of bone cells that break-down and build-up bone in the bone remodeling process. Osteoclasts are the bone-disassembly cells, osteoblasts are the bone-building cells. Osteoblasts secrete a protein called osteocalcin into the blood. When osteocalcin is in an activated state (activated by K2), osteocalcin binds to calcium and transports it from the blood and into the bone. Osteoblasts then integrate this calcium into the bone matrix, thereby increasing the bone‘s mineral density and strength. As part of the remodelling cycle, osteoclasts remove old or damaged bone, so that it can be replaced with new bone.
Vitamin K2 MK-7 activates osteocalcin and enables it to bind with calcium
Calcium is universally understood as the building block of strong bones. Vitamin D3 aids absorption of calcium from the intestine and into the bloodstream where it can be put to work. The missing ingredient has long been vitamin K2 MK-7. Vitamin K2 plays a vital role in bone health by regulating the transport and distribution of calcium in the body. It activates the osteocalcin proteins which incorporate calcium into the bone matrix. Without K2, calcium and vi - tamin D3 cannot function properly or effectively. Without K2, calcium in the bloodstream cannot be utilized for bone-building, and worse it can be deposited in arteries in the form of plaque (a risk factor for heart disease). K2VITAL® vitamin K2 MK-7 has been the unsung hero in the Bone Health Triangle®, but this is beginning to change as K2 takes the center stage.
MK-7 supplementation helps postmenopausal women fight bone loss
In a double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial, bone strength was investigated in 244 healthy postmeno pausal women over a period of 3 years, supplemented with either 180 μg of MK-7 or placebo. (Knapen et al., 2013) MK-7 supplementation significantly reduced the level of inactive osteocalcin (ucOC) and increased the level of active osteocalcin (cOC). In addition, the intake of MK-7 significantly decreased the age-related decline in bone mineral content (BMC) and density (BMD) at the end of the thighbone (femoral neck) and the lower back spine (lumbar spine). Also, MK-7 significantly reduced the loss in vertebral height in the lower chest region.
Studies showing effect of vitamin K2 MK-7 on bone health
- Product development
- Science Papers
- Experience Cards
Kappa developed the K2 Formulation LookBook, including more than 120 ready-to-use product formulations and dosage forms targeted towards all K2 health applications and a wide range of consumer groups.
Kappa’s on-going ExperienceCard Program develops innovative vitamin K2 formulations in collaboration with industry leaders. Each ExperienceCard concept represents a novel product formulation that is specifically designed to solve an existing market problem or to address a health segment or consumer group in a new way. K2VITAL® vitamin K2 MK-7 provides the central ingredient in each of the products. Partners provided synergistic co-ingredients, innovative dosage or manufacturing technology, or other elements that make these forward-looking products possible.