Kappa Bioscience
K2 Deficiency

K2 Deficiency

Vitamin K2 fore bones and heart: Biomarkers of Deficiency


K2 Deficiency - Basic Principals

See what CEO Egil Greve from Kappa Bioscience has to say about K2


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Vitamin K2 is vital for bone-building and the optimal functioning of the cardiovascular system

Vitamin K2 activates osteocalcin, an enzyme that helps build bones by integrating calcium into the bone matrix. If vitamin K2 levels are low, then activation of osteocalcin is insufficient and bone formation is reduced.

Similarly, vitamin K2 activates matrix Gla protein (MGP) in cartilage and the smooth muscle cells of the vascular system. Activated MGP binds excess calcium and removes  it, reducing the risk of calcium deposits in the vessel wall and arterial stiffening (a risk factor for heart disease).

Inactive proteins are the biomarkers of vitamin K2 deficiency

Vitamin K2 deficiency is common in Western populations. In these populations, a high percentage of osteocalcin and MGP proteins remain in the inactive (uncarboxylated) form as demonstrated by blood samples from healthy subjects. Many studies have documented the beneficial effects of vitamin K2 supplementation in reducing levels of inactive osteocalcin and MGP, and thereby improving bone and cardiovascular health. The ratios of carboxylated and uncarboxylated osteocalcin and MGP in the blood are important biomarkers for the vitamin K2 status in the human body.

Western diets are deficient in vitamin K

Our diets are low in vitamin K2 and there is a vitamin K2 deficiency in all populations

Animal products and certain fermented food products such as cheese are the primary sources of vitamin K2. The daily intake of vitamin K2 via food has decreased over the past hundred years. In the previous century, it was common to eat fermented products like cured fish and aged cheese. The highest concentration of vitamin K2 MK-7 is found in a Japanese dish made from fermented soybeans (natto).

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Scalable capacity for mass-market production demands: Kappa’s current production capacity already exceeds the total projected yearly global vitamin K2 demand through 2020.
Industry-leading pricing: Kappa continuously reinvests in R&D and manufacturing processes to drive ingredient price points to levels that support commercial adoption. In 2017, Kappa led the market with a 45% price reduction – marking a significant step on the path to mass-market commercialization of K2.

Purity: all-trans vitamin K2 MK-7 (USP).
Quality: GMP, HACCP, ISO 22000:2005 manufacturing and distribution standards.
Stability: Patent-pending microencapsulation technology ensures stability in challenging formulations.
Long shelf life in finished products: 36 months shelf life on all ingredients; supported by extensive stability data on ingredients and finished formulations.
Approvals: Novel Food (EU), TGA (AUS), GRAS (USA), drug registration in India (2017). Application processes are initiated in countries including China, Thailand and others. Kosher and Halal certifications.

Kappa developed the K2 Formulation LookBook, including more than 120 ready-to-use product formulations and dosage forms targeted towards all K2 health applications and a wide range of consumer groups.

Kappa’s on-going ExperienceCard Program develops innovative vitamin K2 formulations in collaboration with industry leaders. Each ExperienceCard concept represents a novel product formulation that is specifically designed to solve an existing market problem or to address a health segment or consumer group in a new way. K2VITAL® vitamin K2 MK-7 provides the central ingredient in each of the products. Partners provided synergistic co-ingredients, innovative dosage or manufacturing technology, or other elements that make these forward-looking products possible.

K2 Introduction

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The History of K2

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The Different Vitamins in the K Family

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All-trans Means All-bioactive

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K2 Deficiency

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